This report describes and explains the epidemiological and social aspects of newborn health, including the big picture and an explanation of related factors. Building on a detailed account of the maternal and reproductive health status in the country, the determinants of newborn and maternal mortality have been carefully examined and presented in this report. Every effort has been made to take into account all of the available latest information. "What needs to be done?", the last chapter of the report summarizes key outcomes of the entire effort. It includes the analysis of secondary information as well as a comparison of existing programs, identifying both achievements and gaps. The report also examines donor funded programs which, along with the Ministry of Health, are striving to improve coverage of maternal, newborn and child health services, quality of care, meeting targets for Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, better maternal health and child survival respectively. A synthesis of their comments along with the outcome of a secondary data review has been presented to provide Pakistan-specific information for future course of action.