Association between early essential newborn care and breastfeeding outcomes in eight countries in Asia and the Pacific: a cross-sectional observational -study

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To explore the association between early essential newborn care (EENC) policy, practice and environmental interventions and breastfeeding outcomes.


Cross-sectional observational study.


150 national, provincial and district hospitals implementing EENC in eight countries in East Asia and the Pacific.


1383 maternal interviews, chart reviews and environmental assessments during 2016 and 2017.

Main outcome measures

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), that is, feeding only breastmilk without other food or fluids since birth and before discharge, and, early breastfeeding initiation, that is, during skin-to-skin contact (SSC) with the mother without separation.

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