Innovative approach for potential scale-up to jump-start simplified management of sick young infants with possible serious bacterial infection when a referral is not feasible: Findings from implementation research

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The objective of this study was to implement a simplified antibiotic regimen (2 days gentamicin injection and 7 days oral amoxicillin) for management of sick young infants with PSBI in a programme setting when referral was not feasible to identify at least 80% of PSBI cases, achieve an overall adequate treatment coverage of at least 80% and document the challenges and opportunities for implementation at the community level in two districts in Tigray, Ethiopia.


Using implementation research, we applied the PSBI guideline in a programme setting from January 2016 to August 2017 in Raya Alamata and Raya Azebo Woredas (districts) in Southern Tigray, Ethiopia with a population of 260884. Policy dialogue was held with decision-makers, programme implementers and stakeholders at federal, regional and district levels, and a Technical Support Unit (TSU) was established. Health Extension Workers (HEWs) working at the health posts and supervisors working at the health centres were trained in WHO guideline to manage sick young infants when referral was not feasible. Communities were sensitized towards appropriate home care.


We identified 854 young infants with any sign of PSBI in the study population of 7857 live births. The expected live births during the study period were 9821. Assuming 10% of neonates will have any sign of PSBI within the first 2 months of life (n = 982), the coverage of appropriate treatment of PSBI cases in our study area was 87% (854/982). Of the 854 sick young infants, 333 (39%) were taken directly to a hospital and 521 (61%) were identified by HEW at health posts. Of the 521 young infants, 27 (5.2%) had signs of critical illness, 181 (34.7%) had signs of clinical severe infection, whereas 313 (60.1%) young infants 7-59 days of age had only fast breathing pneumonia. All young infants with critical illness accepted referral to a hospital, while 117/181 (64.6%) infants with clinical severe infection accepted referral. Families of 64 (35.3%) infants with clinical severe infection refused referral and were treated at the health post with injectable gentamicin for 2 days plus oral amoxicillin for 7 days. All 64 completed recommended gentamicin doses and 63/64 (98%) completed recommended amoxicillin doses. Of 313 young infants, 7-59 days with pneumonia who were treated by the HEWs without referral with oral amoxicillin for 7 days, 310 (99%) received all 14 doses. No deaths were reported among those treated on an outpatient basis at health posts. But 35/477 (7%) deaths occurred among young infants treated at hospital.

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