The Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised trials in Mozambique, Pakistan, and India: an individual participant-level meta-analysis

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To overcome the three delays in triage, transport and treatment that underlie adverse pregnancy outcomes, researchers aimed to reduce all-cause adverse outcomes with community-level interventions targeting women with pregnancy hypertension in three low-income countries.


In this individual participant-level meta-analysis, we de-identified and pooled data from the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised controlled trials in Mozambique, Pakistan, and India, which were run in 2014–17. Consenting pregnant women, aged 12–49 years, were recruited in their homes. Clusters, defined by local administrative units, were randomly assigned (1:1) to intervention or control groups. The control groups continued local standard of care. The intervention comprised community engagement and existing community health worker-led mobile health-supported early detection, initial treatment, and hospital referral of women with hypertension. For this meta-analysis, as for the original studies, the primary outcome was a composite of maternal or perinatal outcome (either maternal, fetal, or neonatal death, or severe morbidity for the mother or baby), assessed by unmasked trial surveillance personnel. For this analysis, we included all consenting participants who were followed up with completed pregnancies at trial end. We analysed the outcome data with multilevel modelling and present data with the summary statistic of adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs (fixed effects for maternal age, parity, maternal education, and random effects for country and cluster). This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018102564.

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