In the State of the World's Newborns, we review the most recent data on the newborn, revealing the alarmingly poor health and quality of health for mothers and newborns in virtually all impoverished countries. While there has been a dramatic reduction in under-five mortality in the past two decades, there has been relatively little change in newborn mortality, even though proven, cost-effective solutions exist to save many of these young lives. Indeed, newborn deaths now constitute over 40 percent of all deaths to children under age five. Until recently, policymakers and program planners focused relatively little attention on this age group, concentrating instead on interventions that primarily benefit infants over one month of age. We recognize, however, that additional gains in child survival will depend in large measure on saving newborn lives.