In two-thirds of the 36 developing countries among the 179 nations surveyed, the poorest urban children are at least twice as likely to die as their wealthier counterparts, according to the report.
The charity compared factors such as maternal health, child mortality, education and income in 176 countries.
For the first time, the charity has compiled a separate index on newborn deaths. While deaths of children under five around the world have come down substantially in recent years, there has been little progress on newborns.
Pioneering studies are helping to explain how the foods a mother eats during her pregnancy may affect the way genes function in her children.
The State of the World’s Midwifery Report 2011 was Wednesday officially launched by the Minister of Health and Social Welfare, Fatim Badjie.